Hard cheese list

hard cheese list
September 18, 2020

The hard cheese list is a perfect seducer of palates fans , thanks to its intense flavors and their pasta firm and hard. Those who appreciate its quality can enjoy it alone or with bread, it also has an important role when it is used as an ingredient for a hot dish. The consistency and flavor of hard cheeses are the results of a long maturation, which takes at least two months. Some varieties of hard cheese require two years to complete the maturation process, including those that last up to 36 months, a process that guarantees an unbeatable flavor.

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The characteristics of all the types of hard cheeses that we find in the market vary depending on the way of preparation, the technique used and the type of milk used. The term “hard” refers to the pressure they have been put under to make them form compactly . Hard cheeses generally have a thick rind, a yellowish color and an intense and strong aroma, as well as their flavor.

County, Beaufort, Emmental de Savoie cheeses, for example, have undergone a long manufacturing process in which the curd is heated to an elevated temperature of 50 ° for 1 hour. Once the wheel is obtained, it is left in a warm cellar at 20 ° C, before returning to the cold cellar to be refined for 3 to 24 months.

The method of separating the curd, leaving it or cutting it several times, are also factors that act directly on the consistency of the cheese, as is the technique applied during the ripening process; while this time is longer, the cheese is firmer. This type of hard cheese matures evenly through its dough and drying, which explains the formation of a solid crust on the outside.


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

The truth about Kefalotyri Greek Cheese is that few have ever tried the original. This is because, outside of Greece, versions with milder flavors are often marketed. However, all its versions are exquisite and can be incorporated into a multitude of traditional or creative recipes.


Kefalotyri or Kefalotiri cheese is a classic Greek-Cypriot cheese.

It is believed to be the cheese that later gave rise to other hard Greek cheeses. Its birth dates back to the Byzantine era.

It is originally made from sheep’s milk , but it is also produced with goat’s milk or a mixture of both. Outside of Greece Kefalotyri cheese is generally produced from cow’s milk and should be called Kefalograviera .

Currently, in addition to its already traditional version obtained from cow’s milk, there are already variants of Kefalotyri cheese in Cyprus and the Middle East.


The original Kefalotyri cheese has a hard cream-white paste with small holes evenly distributed throughout its surface. Its flavor is slightly salty and has the aroma of milk and dried fruits.

Its fat content is approximately 40-45% , including saturated fat and cholesterol. It is convenient that people with cardiac or metabolic pathologies moderate their consumption.

It has a natural, hard, thin and dry, cream-colored rind .

To obtain the appropriate characteristics of its pasta and rind , a minimum of 3 months of maturation is required , obtaining young cheeses. When the maturation is extended for a year or more, an aged Kefalotyri cheese with a dry and stronger flavor is obtained .

The version of Kefalotyri cheese made in Cyprus is characterized by having a harder paste and ivory color. In addition, the aroma is stronger but has a more caramel than milky tint.

Kefalotyri cheese is arguably similar to Gruyere cheese, though tougher and saltier.

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Kefalotyri cheese is traditionally accompanied by virgin or extra virgin olive oil and various aromatic herbs.

Its versatility allows it to be incorporated into pasta, cernes or vegetables , mainly cooked.

In Greece it is used to be incorporated into the traditional Saganaki dish or “fried cheese”.

In Argentina it could be enjoyed in salads, snacks or cheese boards. In the latter, it is recommended to combine Kefalotyri cheese with fresh seasonal fruit . This option is generally chosen by those who want innovative mixes of flavors and textures ; you can choose to combine Kefalotyri cheese with pears, figs or grapes and serve it alongside red wine and appetizer sausages.

Due to the hardness of its paste, it is ideal to use as a replacement for Reggianito cheese, grated in a variety of hot or cold recipes, especially aged Kefalotyri cheese.


  • Made from pasteurized sheep and/or goat milk
  • Country of origin: Cyprus,  Greece  and Turkey
  • Type:  hard
  • Fat content: 40%
  • Texture: firm and flaky
  • Bark: natural
  • Color: pale yellow
  • Taste: salty, strong, spicy, strong, sour
  • Aroma: rich, strong
  • Vegetarian: no
  • Producers: CHRISTAKIS Greek cheeses
  • Alternative Synonyms: Kefalotiri



hard cheese list
hard cheese list

Sbrinz cheese stands out for its hardness and typical aromatic and somewhat spicy flavor . It is not a very consumed cheese in Argentina, but it is worth trying. Its consistency is even harder than that of traditional hard paste cheeses and its flavor is clearly different from the hard cheeses that are usually chosen in the country.

In Swiss cuisine it is generally used as a replacement for Parmesan cheese. In Argentina it occasionally replaces Reggianito cheese.


Sbrinz cheese is originally made in Central Switzerland. It is a mountain cheese produced in an artisanal way.

In 2002 it received the AOP label , which implies that the selected cheese companies that produce it must meet highly strict quality requirements. sbrinz AOP cheese is a 100% natural product. It is produced with premium quality cow’s milk, rennet and salt without additives.

The ripening time is considerably long, almost twice that required for Emmental and Gruyère cheeses. The minimum period is 18 months. After that period you can begin to taste it. The longer the maturation time, the more aromatic and spicy the product will be. 

  • At 18 months Sbrinz cheese can be easily cut into slices or cubes of various sizes.
  • At 24 months or má s , when it has already developed its full flavor, it is used as a snack or part of a cheese or chopped.


Sbrinz cheese is preserved for long periods , without the need to be in cool environments. This is thanks to the fact that its paste is extra-hard, with a really low percentage of water.

It has a hard and thick bark , light brown slightly golden. Its interior is extremely hard and grainy in texture. This is the reason why it is often used grated.

It has a characteristic pungent and acid aroma , with a strong lemon accent. Its flavor is honeyed and cured , feeling slightly burned.


On a nutritional level, the high fat content of sbrinz cheese can be highlighted. Generally, the lower the water content, the higher the fat. The sodium content is also high . Both characteristics mean that its consumption should be moderate in those people who have heart or metabolic diseases. In the case of those without underlying pathology, it is also recommended to moderate their consumption, incorporating small amounts of this cheese in the dishes. This is because it is an intense cheese, not only in flavor but also in consistency. 


It is advisable to add it in small to moderate amounts . It is generally cut into small cubes or used crumbled or grated.

The following uses are recommended

  • Incorporating it in light salads can be a tasty and suitable option to avoid creating heavy dishes
  • For gratins it can be used alone or mixed with other softer cheeses
  • For bites or cheese boards, small cubes must be cut, so that it is not invasive
  • For pasta or rice dishes, such as risotto, it is usually chosen in replacement of the traditional reggianito cheese
  • For meat dishes , soft white meats are recommended , such as poultry or fish
  • It is usually accompanied with Alsatian Pinot Blanc wine, Grave del Friuli or Beer
  • It is used in a traditional Swiss dish made of diced noodles and potatoes, roasted with onions and heavy cream and topped with sbrinz cheese.
  • When there will be children among the diners, it is recommended to mix it with softer cheeses , since it can be strong and very different from the foods they usually eat

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  • Made from unpasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin:  Switzerland
  • Region: Lucerne, Schwyz, Unterwald and Zoug, and the following additional places: District of Muri in d’Argovi
  • Family: Swiss cheese
  • Type:  hard, craftsman
  • Fat content: 45%
  • Texture: dense and flaky
  • Shell: natural
  • Yellow color
  • Flavor: nutty, spicy, strong
  • Aroma: aromatic, spicy
  • Vegetarian: no


 Quantity per 100 gr
Energetic value323 Kcal = 1075 KJ
Carbohydrates1.53 grs.
Protein36.16 grs.
Total Fats20.97grs.
Saturated fats14.68 grs.
Dietary fiber0 grs.
Sodium869 grs.
hard cheese list


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

Lancashire cheese was born in a small town in England to become, later, a cheese valued in different corners of the world. There are three versions that differ mainly in their maturation time, obtaining delicious cheeses. Undoubtedly, it is advisable to try each of its variants and experiment with incorporating them into traditional Argentine dishes, as well as recreating traditional English recipes.


Lancashire cheese gets its name from its region of origin, Lancashire. It began to be produced in the 13th century, but the characteristics it had at that time were not the same as today.

It could be said that the creators of this peculiar cheese were the wives of English farmers. They used surplus cow’s milk to make this cheese. For a time it was produced in an almost random way , until in 1980 a recipe was formalized: Joseph Gornall , an employee of the county of Lancashire, was the one who with his knowledge of production methods managed to standardize the way of making Lancashire cheese.

Today it is Joseph Gornall’s recipe that is used to produce it. However, some farms still produce authentic Lancashire cheese, based on raw milk and with a strong salty taste that increases with maturation. In this link (in English) you can see the most recognized of these cheeses, produced in their locality of origin.

On the other hand, industrially produced cheese is significantly softer. They say in the town of origin that the industrial version of this cheese does not deserve to bear its name.


Nowadays, farm production consists of using raw cow’s milk and joining it with the drained, crumbled and salted curd, for two or three consecutive days. The curd is crumbled again and introduced into molds. Then it is pressed for twenty-four hours. After this time, it is waxed and left to mature as long as necessary according to the desired characteristics.


It is a firm cheese with a characteristic flavor. There are no holes inside, but irregularities may be found in the paste. It is a soft yellow-sand colored cheese.

There are three versions of this cheese

  • Creamy ; (75% fat content) Soft and creamy texture, rich buttery flavor. Its maturation time is 4 to 12 weeks. It is the one with the shortest maturation time.
  • Tasty ; (25% fat content) When creamy Lancashire cheese matures for a longer period its flavor intensifies. It usually takes 24 months of maturation to obtain an exquisite Flavourful Lancashire cheese with a slight nutty flavor. This type of Lancashire cheese has been produced for more than 700 years.
  • Crumbly ; (31% fat content) It is the most modern version of Lancashire cheese , better known outside the Lacashire region. It was first produced in 1960 and is known as “New”. It is a slightly spicier cheese than creamy Lancashire.


Creamy Lancashire cheese is a popular choice for spreading toast or crackers. Even in some regions it is called a toastie. The citizens of Lanashire maintain that their cheese is the original for toast. At one time this cream cheese was often referred to as “Leigh’s toaster,” the name of a town in the region where the cheese was made.

It is also delicious on sandwiches and pasta, although it is traditionally consumed with grated carrots or dates and chopped walnuts. And, for main dishes, it is often added to cheese soups, cauliflower or traditional Lancashire cakes.

Due to the softness of its texture, it melts well, and can be used in hot dishes.

All varieties of this cheese are ideal to incorporate into snacks and tables. They provide original flavors and allow many diners to discover new textures, aromas and flavors. 


  • Made from pasteurized or unpasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin:  England
  • Region: Lancashire
  • Type: Craftsman, Hard , Pressed
  • Fat content: 75%
  • Texture: creamy, fluffy and smooth
  • Shell: natural
  • Color: pale yellow
  • Flavor: buttery, creamy, smooth
  • Aroma: rich
  • Vegetarian: no
  • Producers: Butlers Free Range Cheese, Dewlay Products Ltd, Leagram Organic Cheese, Singletons’ Dairy


Values ​​for 100g of Lancashire cheese

Calories373 cal
Protein23.3 g
Carbohydrate0.1 g
Grease31 g
fiber0 g
Alcohol0 g
hard cheese list


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

Cheshire cheese is known as the oldest English cheese. If you are looking for a cheese to combine with fruits, this turns out to be the ideal cheese. It has a smooth and milky flavor, liked by adults and children. Although in Argentina it is not one of the most popular cheeses, it is worth incorporating it into the preparation of fruits, chutneys or cheese boards and snacks to provide variety and new flavors.


Many recognize it as the oldest cheese in England. In 1086, the eleventh century, it is mentioned in the Domesday Book and its origin is estimated in Roman times. 

It owes its name to the region in which it is traditionally produced: Cheshire. But, it is also elaborated in neighboring counties: Shopshire, Staffordshire, Denbighshire and Flintshire.

It is produced both on farms and in cheese factories.   However, few farms produce it.

It starts with vegetarian rennet and pasteurized cow’s milk. Waxed or bandaged 18kg cylinders are traditionally made, as in the case of Cheddar cheese . Then, it requires an average ripening time of between four and eight weeks. As it matures the flavor of the Cheshire cheese intensifies and dries, although it remains crumbly. 


Cheshire cheese is a hard cheese , but it differs in texture from most other hard cheeses. It is a dense, crumbly, more friable and moist consistency. This is due in part to its fat content that varies between 45 and 48%.

Young Cheshire cheese is light creamy white in color and red Cheshire tends to an orange or peach color. In both cases a mild and salty flavor is perceived when tasting it, due to the salinity of the Cheshire plain. Despite the difference in appearance, they do not differ in taste, texture, and aroma.

Cherishe cheese is a cheese with a mild and aromatic flavor, but to be incorporated into a recipe it must be taken into account that it has a spicy aftertaste.

Another version of Cheshire cheese is the blue Cheshire cheese obtained by maturing Penicillium in culture molds.


Cheshire cheese has the peculiarity of combining perfectly with different fruits. In fact, it is usually one of the most frequent uses that it is given, especially when looking for sophistication and innovation.

It is not uncommon to find it in cheese and chopped boards or accompanying pickles, radishes, celery and bread. 

As can be seen, it is frequently consumed in snacks or “loose” meals rather than in elaborate dishes. But, in these it can be found in preparations such as chutney or baked vegetables.

It is not a cheese that is usually accompanied with meats, except that these are part of preparations with vegetables. However, since cooking is an art, modern and original recipes can be created in which the use of exquisite Cheshire cheese is diversified. 

The wines most chosen to accompany them are usually  Mersault or New World Cabernet Sauvignon.


  • Made pasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin: England and United Kingdom
  • Region: Cheshire, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Shropshire and Staffordshire
  • Tough man
  • Fat content: 48%
  • Texture: crumbly and dense
  • Shell: wrapped in cloth
  • Orange
  • Flavor: flavoring, mild, milky, spicy
  • Aroma: aromatic
  • Vegetarian: yes
  • Producers: Appleby’s
  • Synonyms: Farmhouse Cheshire
  • Alternative spelling: Blue Cheshire, Red Cheshire


100 grams of Cheshire Cheese contain:

  • 387 calories
  • 23.37 grams of protein
  • 30.60 grams of fat
  • 4.8 grams of carbohydrates
  • do not contain fiber
  • 30.60 grams of fat
  • 103 mg of Cholesterol

Contains minerals:

  • Sodium (700 mg)
  • Calcium (643 mg)
  • Phosphorus (464 mg)

It contains vitamins:

  • Vitamin A (985 IU)
  • Vitamin B-9 (18 mg)
  • Vitamin B-12 (0.83 mg)

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hard cheese list
hard cheese list

The Parrano is a Dutch cheese that comes in three different versions according to their ripening time and ingredients. For cheese lovers it is recommended to taste and appreciate the subtle differences that exist between the three types of Parrano cheese; They are soft cheeses but extremely palatable. 


Parrano cheese is a relatively new cheese of Dutch origin. However it is known as  “The Dutch cheese you think is Italian” due to its distinctive characteristics.

At the 2006 World Cheese Championships in Madison, Wisconsin, Parrano cheese won a medal for “Best of Class, Gouda.”

Within the selection for the world title of  “cheese champions” he achieved an outstanding position as second finalist.  

Currently it is marketed under the Parrano or Prima Donna brand , one being the competition of the other.

Starting in 2013, a cheese began to be marketed under the name Paradiso ,  which due to its organoleptic characteristics could be categorized within the same family of Parrano cheese. Therefore in addition to s, it appears as a new competition for Parrano cheese . Although Paradiso cheese also has a characteristically Italian flavor, it is produced in the Netherlands.

On Wikipedia you will find much more information about the history of this variety, in English.


Parrano cheese is made from pasteurized cow’s milk and is contained in an artificial plastic rind. It is produced in wheels of approximately 9kg in weight. It does not usually have holes in its paste, but if you can find a few.

It is a hard cheese, with a firm but soft and creamy interior. Its natural pale yellow color contrasts with the deep red color of its shell. It has a slight nutty flavor.

It is available in three versions

  • Original Parrano : Its maturation time is 5 months
  • Robust parrano : Its maturation time is 9 months
  • Parrano Olifesta : It is like the original, but flavored with sun-dried tomatoes (natural method), Italian aromatic herbs and olive oil.

Parrano cheese is known as “ Gouda Holandez cheese ” since it has a smooth texture similar to that of a young Gouda cheese. They also have very similar flavors, although Parrano cheese is more intense than traditional Gouda cheese. 


Parrano cheese is a very easy cheese to cut and melt , which opens a range of possibilities when creating new recipes or exploring uses that were not used to. Although it is not one of the best known cheeses in Argentina, its versatility makes it ideal to be introduced in traditional Argentine recipes.

Being a cheese strongly associated with Italian culture, it is no surprise that it pairs so well with dishes such as pizza and pasta.

It is frequently chosen to prepare simple or sophisticated appetizers , depending on the ingredients that accompany it.

Given its mild flavor and supple texture, it is generally accepted by everyone who tries it, including children.

Due to the smoothness of its consistency and flavor, it is not usually found in bites or traditional cheese boards. However, when you want to prepare complete and varied bites or cheese boards, it is advisable to consider the presence of Parrano cheese; It is a cheese that offers the possibility of softening intense textures and flavors of other foods , for example spicy cold cuts.

It is traditionally accompanied with light beers. And for those who prefer wines, you can opt for a  Merlot or a Shiraz. 


  • Made from pasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin:  Holland.
  • Region: Het Groene Hart
  • Family: Gouda
  • Type:  hard  , handmade
  • Texture: creamy, firm, open and smooth.
  • Bark: plastic
  • Color: pale yellow
  • Flavor: buttery, creamy, nutty, salty, sweet
  • Producers: Uniekaas Nederland BV
  • Synonyms: Parrano Olifesta, Parrano Robusto, Parrano Originale


Parrano cheese per portion (28g) provides:

  • 110 kcal
  • 9g of total fat
  • 6g of saturated fat
  • 30mg of cholesterol
  • Does not provide trans fat
  • 200mg sodium
  • 8g protein
  • 32% RDI calcium


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

Smoked gouda cheese is a variant of traditional gouda cheese. The smoke to which it is subjected gives it a unique flavor that, added to its hard texture, makes it one of the favorites by many. Although the natural smoking process was replaced by more practical industrial procedures, smoked gouda cheese managed to retain its exquisite flavor. Today it is chosen in homes around the world, for an infinity of hot and cold preparations. Such has been its popularity throughout history, that different versions flavored with different aromatic spices were emerging.


Smoked gouda cheese came from small farms in Gouda, the Netherlands. To obtain its characteristic and clearly differentiated flavor from traditional gouda cheese, it was smoked in brick ovens. Later its popularity began to spread to different regions. It was then that the custom of smoking it on willow wood in smokehouses was installed. The flavor that these artisanal production methods gave it was widely appreciated, which is why over time it became popular throughout the world.

Due to its passage through different cultures, different types of smoked gouda cheese emerged. Among the most recognized are:

  • Smoked gouda cheese with Mexican chili , particularly spicy, ideal for snacks or cold meals
  • Smoked gouda cheese with black pepper , a version with a milder heat than the previous one
  • Gouda cheese smoked with aromatic herbs , according to the chosen herbs, smoked cheeses with personality are achieved

With the progressive emergence of new knowledge and technologies, the old production processes were being replaced by others that were more practical and economically convenient for producers.

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Currently, instead of producing natural smoking, it is chosen to add smoke essences to the original gouda cheese. Still, its flavor has not stopped being exquisite. There are, however, farms and family businesses that still produce gouda cheese smoked in the traditional way, ideal for those who enjoy a good cheese .

Smoking can be done hot or cold. In the first case, the cheese is exposed to smoking between 20 ° C and 30 ° C, while hot temperatures ranging from 35 to 90 ° C are used. There are also cheaper strategies to achieve similar results: the cheese is exposed to liquid smoke, which gives it a flavor and color similar to natural smoke.

From the above, different ways of obtaining a smoked gouda cheese can be identified in different times and places in the world  . For all of them, we always start with traditional gouda cheese , so its quality will determine, to a large extent, the quality of the smoked gouda cheese that is obtained.


Smoked gouda cheese is commonly oval in shape, although it is also available in circular or rectangular shapes. It is recognized by its yellowish or dark brown skin, a color that it originally obtained from the smoking process. It is an edible crust that concentrates the much sought after smoky flavor.

Its interior is yellowish in color, with a semi-hard but creamy and compact texture , without the presence of holes. Its standard version is characterized by being homogeneous and presenting a pure smoky flavor and aroma. These are achieved thanks to the fact that no other substance interferes with its tasting. But, when aromatic and flavoring substances are incorporated, cheeses with an inhomogeneous interior are generally obtained, the spices used being visible. When tasting these aromatic variants, the typical smoky flavor is mixed with that of spices. Thus, irresistible flavor combinations are always achieved.


Smoked gouda cheese, as well as traditional cheese, offers advantages and disadvantages when considering its nutritional value.

Gather many key nutrients for bone health. One of the most notable is vitamin K2 . This favors the incorporation of calcium into the bones. It is not an easy vitamin to find in natural foods, so its contribution in traditional and smoked gouda cheese represents a nutritional benefit. In addition, it provides calcium, phosphorus and magnesium , three essential nutrients for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. And, as a prominent vitamin, it offers vitamin D. This is responsible for regulating the metabolism of calcium in the body.

On the other hand, it has a high caloric intake, partly due to saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as a high sodium content. For these reasons, it is advisable to moderate its consumption, mainly in people with dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight or obesity, or other cardiometabolic risk pathologies.


To preserve its organoleptic characteristics, it is recommended that it be stored at temperatures between 12 ° C and 16 ° C.

It is ideal for preparing sandwiches, hamburgers, quesadillas and salads. Due to its characteristic flavor, it is especially recommended to add personality to traditional preparations like these and many others.

For lovers of cheese fondues, it is also an interesting option. Adding a portion of smoked gouda cheese to your favorite fondue will add a touch of smoky flavor that will make it a unique fondue. It is generally recommended that smoked gouda cheese be combined with one or more other cheeses that soften and complement its characteristic flavor. Among the most chosen are Gruyère cheese and/or traditional gouda cheese.

It is also often used to add new flavors to snacks and, in many cases, to hot dishes. Although its incorporation in cold preparations is customary, more and more chefs and lovers of creative cuisine are looking for new ways to incorporate it into non-traditional recipes.

Wine is always a good accompaniment to cheese . As a general rule, the spicier a cheese is, the sweeter the wine should be. in this way, its flavors complement each other perfectly. In addition, for strong cheeses it is advisable to choose white wines. Therefore, if we choose a seasoned version of smoked gouda cheese, we must remember these suggestions to enjoy its flavor to the fullest. See more about cheeses and wines.

As a replacement for smoked gouda cheese, another type of smoked cheese could be chosen. It should always be considered that its flavor will not be the same since it starts from different base cheeses. Among them, the gruyere, mozzarella, scamorza and cheddar stand out.


  • Made from pasteurized or unpasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin: Holland and Netherlands
  • Region: South Holland, Gouda
  • Family: Gouda
  • Type: hard, craftsman
  • Fat content: 7 g / 100 g
  • Texture: buttery and crumbly
  • Shell: waxed
  • Color: pale yellow
  • Flavor: smoked
  • Aroma: smoked
  • Vegetarian: no


Quantity per  100 grams
Calories  356
hard cheese list
Total fat  27 g
Saturated fatty acids  18 g
Polyunsaturated fatty acids  0.7 g
Monounsaturated fatty acids  8 g
Cholesterol  114 mg
Sodium  819 mg
Potassium  121 mg
Carbohydrates  2.2 g
Dietary fiber  0 g
Sugars  2.2 g
Protein  25 g
hard cheese list
Vitamin A563 UIVitamin C0 mg
Calcium700 mgIron0.2 mg
Vitamin D20 IUVitamin B60.1 mg
B12 vitamin1.5 µgMagnesium29 mg
hard cheese list


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

Some dishes in the kitchen attribute their success and acceptance solely and exclusively to a special ingredient, this is the case of Parmesan cheese, a basic element to give the perfect touch to many dishes, especially pasta, lasagna and pastiches. This Italian cheese is one of the most popular and typical that evokes the essential ingredient in cooking. Its indisputable fame beyond its borders has made it one of the most coveted cheeses. We invite you to learn more about Parmesan cheese.


The Parmigiano Reggiano as it is known in Italian, it is called “Parmesan” in the everyday Spanish and French language, it was born around the 12th century. The history of Parmigiano Reggiano dates back approximately 900 years. Today, as then, the ingredients were always the same: water, salt, milk and a lot of patience during the aging process.

But the most important ingredients were the pastures of Emilia Romagna. The Cistercian and Benedictine monasteries that spread across the plains between Parma and Reggio Emilia favored the development of farms to raise cows suitable for milk production. With the union of these farms the need arose to produce a product that would be kept for as long as possible, which led to the creation of a very particular cheese, Parmigiano Reggiano or Parmesan cheese .

The goodness and fame of Parmesan cheese spread early throughout Europe and the rest of the world for its delicious taste. Even today, this cheese is produced with only local milk, without additives, and with the same original methods.


Parmesan cheese is a medium-fat baked dough cheese, it is a paste that has a finely grainy texture known under the generic term “Grana”, with very fine cavities; its rind has a brushed and oiled appearance. It has a light straw yellow color and its flavor is lactic, fruity and distinctive with spicy. It can be more pronounced depending on the duration of refining. Its presentation is a cylindrical shape with slightly convex sides, it is 46 cm in diameter and 23 cm thick, the weight of this portion can be between 33 and 36 kg.

Parmesan cheese is sold after a minimum of 12 months of maturation, it can even have two or three years of refining, then it is kept almost indefinitely. Ten or more years do not affect its qualities, but it causes a progressive hardening that requires a special technique to cut.


The milk produced in the area of ​​origin is worked with artisan techniques and is entrusted to highly qualified master cheesemakers. The fruit of a thousand years of experience and culture can be seen in the production of Parmesan cheese because it is the artisanal technique that gives this cheese its distinctive character.

The milk is used raw and cannot undergo any heat treatment. Any form of additive is formally prohibited. In this way, the cheese obtained is completely natural.

For the elaboration of Parmesan cheese , the milk of two traits is used, that of the afternoon and that of the morning. The afternoon trait milk is poured into large basins, allowed to sit overnight so that the fat naturally comes to the top. The next morning, the milk is separated from the cream layer, and poured into bell-shaped copper bowls, where it is mixed with the morning’s whole milk without skimming.

This mixture of skim milk and whole milk makes Parmigiano-Reggiano a medium thick cheese. The lactic ferments that were obtained from the cheese the previous day are added to the mixture of the two different milks. Once the milk is heated to 33 ° C, the natural veal rennet, which is rich in enzymes, is added. Milk coagulates for 12 to 15 minutes. The curds are separated manually using a knife cutting utensil called a “spino”. This operation reduces the curd to grains, ready to be cooked.

In the final stage, the curds are cooked at 55 ° C. Once the flame is turned off, the curds fall to the bottom of the basin to form a dough, left to rest for an hour and then extracted by the expert hands of the cheese makers , to be divided in two. Indeed, each basin makes two wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano , and is nicknamed “twins”. The curd mass is then wrapped in a linen cloth and placed in a mold called a “fascera” and lightly pressed to squeeze out the buttermilk.

The Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium verifies that producers in the Reggiano region, or the provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna and Mantua, follow the established production rules that strictly guarantee all stages of cheese making. In addition to safeguarding production, the Consortium also participates in improving quality, ensuring authenticity and promoting knowledge.

Additionally, Parmesan cheese is also a protected product that bears the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) designation, to prevent counterfeiting.


There are two types of Parmesan cheese:

The classic “Parmigiano Reggiano ” that describes cheese wheels that show properties of being able to mature for a long time, 2 years or more. These are recognizable by the oval mark printed with a hot iron.

” Parmigiano-Reggiano Mezzano ” is the name given to those cheeses that show the characteristic of being able to be consumed with less time to maturity, when they have been marked with hot iron. These cheese wheels, in addition to the hot iron marking, are identified by parallel grooves etched into the heel of the crust.


24-month-old Parmesan cheese consists of 33% protein, 28% fat, and 30% water. Its proteins are made to digest by the completely natural production process and in particular, by long maturation.

100 grams of Parmigiano Reggiano covers 85% of the daily phosphorus requirements, and is enough to completely cover the needs of calcium (1,159 mg / 100 g) and vitamin B2.

Source of energy : its guarantee of mobilized lipids can easily create energy reserves for exertion.

Proteins : its high protein content promotes muscle growth.

Calcium : it is necessary for the mineralization of bones and teeth throughout life. This factor also impacts on numerous vital processes: muscle contraction, blood clotting, blood pressure, transmission of nerve impulses, hormonal function, enzyme activity, cell renewal.

Phosphorus : The phosphorus found in Parmesan cheese contributes to the mineralization of bones and teeth .

The consumption of Parmesan cheese is recommended for children and adolescents in the growth phase, as well as the elderly and those with osteoporosis.


Parmesan cheese has had more imitators than any other cheese, perhaps not with the same quality and superiority, but they are very useful to substitute at a certain time.

In Argentina, the reggianito is undoubtedly the most popular of the famous Parmesan cheese. Due to its characteristics, it is ideal to replace it in foods such as pasta, soups or gratins. The reggianito was created by Italians in Argentina and, originally, made the mythical Parmigiano Reggiano tremble. 

Pecorino romano cheese, another substitute that we find for Parmesan cheese , its appearance retains a great similarity, so it can be perfectly used in the same dishes. This Romano cheese is a long matured hard cheese. It also has, like Parmesan, a firm and grainy texture that melts in the mouth. This excellent quality Romano cheese also has many subtleties in its aroma.

Grana Padano cheese has airs quite similar to Parmesan cheese. The elaboration of both cheeses is very similar, however, the Parmesan cheese is still superior since the Grana Padano only matures for 9 months and its color is much paler.

Asiago cheese, also has a texture similar to Parmesan cheese , it is salty and grainy, so it serves as a perfect substitute. This cheese retains a grainy texture similar to Parmesan with a salty flavor very similar to walnuts.


  • Made from unpasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin:  Italy
  • Region: Provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Mantua
  • Family: Parmesan
  • Type:  hard, craftsman
  • Texture: crystalline, dense and grainy
  • Shell: natural
  • Color: straw
  • Flavor: fruity, nutty, tasty, strong
  • Aroma: strong
  • Vegetarian: no
  • Producers: Various


Quantity per  100 grams
Calories  431
hard cheese list
Total fat  29 g
Saturated fatty acids  17 g
Polyunsaturated fatty acids  1.2 g
Monounsaturated fatty acids  8 g
Cholesterol  88 mg
Sodium  1,529 mg
Potassium  125mg
Carbohydrates  4.1 g
Dietary fiber  0 g
Sugars  0.9 g
Protein  38 g
hard cheese list
Vitamin A865 IUVitamin C0 mg
Calcium1.109 mgIron0.9 mg
Vitamin D21 UIVitamin B60 mg
B12 vitamin2.3 µgMagnesium38 mg
hard cheese list


hard cheese list
hard cheese list

The now traditional Argentine Reggianito cheese is the product of an invention by Italian immigrants, who, desperate to imitate their native cheeses, especially Parmigiano Reggiano, came to this cheese with an intense, salty flavor, ideal for grating. Learn all about Reggianito cheese and the reasons that make it a must-see on Argentine tables.

Such was the success of the Reggianito cheese created in Argentina that the Italians themselves began to worry . Would it be a serious competitor to the original Parmigiano Reggiano? Could the Argentine version dethrone the typical Italian cheese? The pride of the Europeans made the native cheese, in which the reggianito was inspired, receive PDO status, in order to protect it.

It is a hard cheese, which is usually bought to be grated, in the popular custom used in pasta and soups, mainly. Its great flavor and versatility made Reggianito cheese one of the most exported cheeses from Argentina. Today, it is consumed in much of the Western world. In the United States, it is called parmesan.

One of its main strengths, both in the local Argentine market and abroad, is the price. It is one of the cheapest hard cheeses , which positions Reggianito as the cheese most consumed by Argentines.

With a salty and robust flavor, grainy texture, a clear straw-yellow paste, the personality of the reggianito was enough for this Italian invention in Argentina to transcend borders and become a world-famous cheese.

If you are looking for a cheese similar to reggianito but with a slightly stronger and more intense flavor, and you don’t mind paying a little more, you can try Sardo cheese, also Argentine, which has a fairly similar use.


  • Made from pasteurized or unpasteurized cow’s milk
  • Country of origin:  Argentina
  • Family: Parmesan
  • Type:  hard
  • Texture: crumbly, flaky and grainy
  • Shell: natural
  • Color: straw
  • Salty flavor
  • Vegetarian: no


Serving: 8g (1 tablespoon)
Amounts Per Serving | % DV *
Energetic Value 38 kcal | 2%
Carbohydrates 0 g | 0%
Proteins 3 g | 4%
Total Fat 2 g | 4% of which:
saturated fat 1 g | 5%
trans fat 0 g
Fiber 0 g | 0%
Sodium 112 mg | 5%
Calcium 104 mg | 10%


The cheese tradition in Sardinia is ancient and very important, the exports of its pecorino cheese have helped to ensure its recognition throughout the world. The great capacity of Sardinian shepherds to produce this cheese on a regular basis and with excellent quality results has contributed to increasing the importance of sheep’s cheese or a mixture of sheep’s and goat’s cheese on our tables in recent years. This time we will talk about Pecorino Sardo cheese, the Italian pecorino cheese par excellence .


Pecorino Sardo cheese has been produced since ancient times in the beautiful landscape of Sardinia. The roots of this special cheese transcend the times of the ancient peoples who inhabited the lands of Sardinia, and it is especially dedicated to sheep farming, which has ancient origins dating back to the Nuragic civilization (before the first millennium BC).

The first historical vestiges found date back to the 18th century, in particular the red smoked cheese that could be the ancestors of the Pecorino Sardo. In this period, cheese was made by cooking raw milk and immersing it in hot stones.

The modern method, however, did not appear before the end of the 19th century, when thermometers, machinery and processes began to be used to guarantee greater hygienic safety of the finished product.

The production of Pecorino Sardo cheese began in Sardinia in 1890, when the Peninsula cheese makers introduced the recipe for making Pecorino Romano.


The texture of Sardinian pecorino cheese can be compact, hard, semi-hard and semi-cooked, according to its consistency. Its color also varies from yellow to white, depending on the ripening period.

The dry or mature version has a smooth dark rind, the inner paste is hard white with a tendency to straw yellow. The cut can be compact or chipped and the flavor is intense aromatic and very exquisite, and can sometimes be a bit spicy.

The sweet version has a smooth crust but with a white or brownish yellow color. The paste inside is white, soft and elastic in consistency with a compact texture. It has a very aromatic, delicate and slightly sour sweet taste.

In both cases the shape is cylindrical, with flat faces and slightly convex edges.


The most famous cheeses in Sardinia such as the Pecorino Sardo cheese, are produced in limited areas that meet the ideal conditions for production, such as the ways of raising, the quality of the pasture, the quality of the milk, the conditions of manufacture of the cheese and environmental conditions in the ripening process.

The first essential point is the type of milk used, which must be strictly from sheep and from farms located throughout the region. Raw milk is subjected to the pasteurization process to ensure safety for sanitary purposes.

Once the pasteurized milk has been obtained, lactic acid bacteria and rennet are added, allowing it to coagulate for around 35 and 40 minutes. Subsequently, the dough is subjected to breaking until the granules that vary in size depending on the type of cheese to be obtained are obtained. In particular, for sweet Pecorino Sardo the granules should be the size of a hazelnut, while for ripe, they should be about the size of a grain of corn.

The dough is cooked at low temperatures that do not exceed 43 ° C, once incorporated into molds. It is then proceeded to cook, with or without pressure, to eliminate excess whey spillage. Finally, the cheeses are salted using the wet or dry method, in such a way that for every 100 grams of Pecorino there is no more than 2 grams of salt.

The final process is ripening, which can range from 20 days to 2 months, depending on the desired result, sweet or ripe.

The Sardo Dulce pecorino reaches its maturation period between 20 and 60 days, while the Ripe or Dry pecorino requires between two and six months.


The Pecorino Sardo has unique and special characteristics, thanks to which it has been successful in obtaining the certification of the protected designation of origin ( PDO ), the leading European award for food. It is a cheese that has been made since ancient times from sheep’s milk, strictly from Sardinia.

To recognize the true PDO Pecorino Sardo version, as opposed to imitations, it is necessary to consider several aspects. First, the rind must include a stamp with edible ink, on which the alphanumeric code of the manufacturing company and the words “PS DOP” are printed.

On the label you can also identify the version of Sardinian pecorino cheese . The green dot indicates a young Pecorino Sardo Dulce, while the blue dot distinguishes Pecorino Sardo Maduro or Seco cheese.


Pecorino cheese has exceptional nutritional properties for health. First of all, sheep’s milk has a high concentration of protein in casein, which makes it very useful for people who want to build muscle mass.

This type of cheese, unlike those made with cow’s milk, has a low lactose content, which makes it particularly useful for diet control in people with lactose intolerance.

The fat in sheep’s cheese, such as Pecorino Sardo cheese, contains less saturated fat than cow’s milk, in fact this fat is monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, an essential fat that is good for the body.

This cheese also contains a number of medium chain triglycerides that help lower cholesterol levels.

As for calcium, its content is higher than that of cow’s milk, so it promotes bone health and dental health.

Sheep cheese contains good amounts of Vitamin D , especially useful for the skin in winter seasons where sunlight is scarce.

It is rich in vitamins A and E, essential to combat skin aging.

Pecorino Sardo cheese is naturally rich in magnesium , a defense weapon against many diseases that threaten the body.


With a wide variety of tastes, from the most delicate to the most intense, Pecorino cheeses have different roles on the table: they can be served as appetizers, crushed to complement pasta or soups; proposed as plates, sliced, chunky or melted. The cheeses that serve as substitutes for Pecorino Sardo cheese to use in all these recipes can be:

  • Parmigiano Reggiano (Parmesan)
  • Asiago
  • Grana Padano
  • Pecorino Romano


  • Made from unpasteurized sheep’s milk
  • Country of origin:  Italy
  • Region: Sardinia provinces of Cagliari, Nuoro, Oristano and Sassari
  • Family: Pecorino
  • Type:  hard, craftsman
  • Texture: dense, firm and oily
  • Bark: natural
  • Color: Straw
  • Flavor: caramel, fruity, nutty, burnt salty
  • Also known as Fiore Sardo


Not available

hard cheese list


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