diabetes type 2 vs type 1:Diabetes is an increasingly common disease associated with a lifestyle where you eat too many sugars and done little exercise. However, although we talk about diabetes in the singular, in fact, there are different types of diabetes, known as type 1 and type 2. We explain the differences.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by excessively high blood glucose levels as a result of the absence or insufficient insulin in the body.
But the causes of this disease are not always the same, and that is where the classification of the different types of diabetes comes from.
In general, people with diabetes either have a complete lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or have very little insulin or cannot use it effectively (type 2 diabetes).
- Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for between 5 and 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating the body’s production of insulin. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need for energy.
- Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can occur at any age. It is most often evident during adulthood. However, type 2 diabetes in children is on the rise. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people with diabetes — between 90 and 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body cannot use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes worsens, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency.
How are these diseases different?
|Diabetes type 1||Type 2 diabetes|
|Symptoms usually begin in childhood or youth. People often seek medical help, because they are very sick due to the sudden symptoms of high blood sugar.||The person may not have symptoms before being diagnosed. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease.|
|Episodes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) are common.||There are no episodes of low blood sugar unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medications.|
|It cannot be prevented.||It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy weight, eating sensibly, and exercising regularly.|
How are they alike?
Both types of diabetes greatly increase a person’s risk for a variety of serious complications. Although monitoring and controlling the disease can prevent complications, diabetes remains the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure. It also remains a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and foot or leg amputations.
Summary table of the differences between both diabetes.
|DIABETES TYPE 1||TYPE 2 DIABETES|
|Cause||Genetic origin: due to some genetic mutation, the immune system attacks the cells that should produce insulin.||External origin: an unhealthy lifestyle affects the body’s ability to produce insulin.|
|Age of diagnosis||Normally before the age of 30.||Usually after 40 years.|
|Appearance of symptoms||They appear very quickly and develop in a few days.||They appear progressively and can take years.|
|Body shape||Normally thin||Usually overweight or obese, especially wide at the waist.|
|Weight change||Slimming||The most normal thing is weight gain, although it can also be maintained or decreased.|
Other types of diabetes
Although types 1 and 2 account for almost 100% of diabetes cases, there are other very rare types of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is suffering from pregnant women who have never had problems with insulin and glucose levels. It can usually be controlled with diet and moderate exercise, although medication may be necessary for some women.
Although it is a temporary problem that ends up disappearing when the pregnancy ends, it is important to control it because it can cause some problems for the fetus and the mother . For one thing, too much glucose in the blood can overfeed the baby and make it too large, causing problems during delivery.
On the other hand, diabetes increases the risk of high blood pressure, which during pregnancy is called preeclampsia and can cause damage to the baby and the mother: premature birth or cardiovascular accidents, among others.
It is a type of diabetes of genetic origin in which an alteration of the pancreas affects the production of insulin. In this case, insulin secretion is impaired, but there are no serious effects of that alteration.
What you need to know about any diabetes
Except in the cases of gestational diabetes and MODY diabetes, diabetes is a chronic and serious disease that can cause serious damage to many organs of the body, derived from excess glucose in the blood and the damage that it can cause on the vessels blood and nerves: problems with the retina, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system and the brain.
No one is safe from developing diabetes, focusing now on type 2 diabetes, so it is important to follow the guidelines of healthy life to reduce that risk. Today, diabetes and obesity are two diseases on the rise, spurred by a sedentary and unhealthy lifestyle.
Finally, what the two types of diabetes do coincide in is the long-term complications that both can produce if high blood glucose levels are maintained continuously. They are as follows:
- Heart problems
- Diabetic foot
- Vision related problems
- Bone and joint disorders
- Skin complications
- Digestive system problems
- Sexual dysfunction
- Tooth and gum problems
In the face of any possible symptoms of the onset of diabetes, it is important that you consult your medical team so that they carry out all the necessary tests and can determine what type of diabetes you have (in case the tests have been positive), and which It is the ideal treatment that you should follow.